The British military commander at the start of Revolution was Sir William Howe, though he was later replaced due to failures in the British war effort.
King George III led British resistance to American independence. The British Prime Minister was Lord North (a Tory)
Not all British MPs supported military action against the American Patriots. The ‘Whig’ faction, e.g. Edmund Burke criticised military action to resolve the issue.
During the war, African-American slaves served on both sides of the war. The British offered freedom to slaves who escaped their masters and served with loyalist forces. After 1776, George Washington raised a small number of black only units.
During the chaos of war, many slaves were able to escape. In South Carolina, 30% of slaves escaped, migrated or died during the conflict.
Approx 25,000 American Patriots died during military service – the biggest cause of death was disease – often in unsanitary prisoner of warships.
Compared to the ratio of the population, The War of Independence was the second-deadliest American conflict after the Civil War.
In 1776, the population of the 13 American colonies was estimated at 2.4 million. 85% of the white population was of British descent, with 9% of German origin and 4% Dutch.
Approx 42,000 British sailors deserted in the war. American colonies also had difficulties raising troops due to the economic need to stay on a farm. 90% of the American population worked on farms.
The British army was weakened by needing to also fight in the Caribbean.
To improve global health, increase opportunity for girls, and women by creating economic opportunities and growth, help communities address issues affecting development, empower communities and contribute to the sustainability of their project activities